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US EPA Method 4A - Specifications And Test Procedures For Carbon Monoxide Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems In Stationary Sources

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1.0 Scope and Application.

1.1 Analytes.

1.2 Applicability.

1.2.1 This specification is for evaluating the acceptability of carbon monoxide (CO) continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) at the time of installation or soon after and whenever specified in an applicable subpart of the regulations. This specification was developed primarily for CEMS that comply with low emission standards (less than 200 ppmv).

1.2.2 This specification is not designed to evaluate the installed CEMS performance over an extended period of time nor does it identify specific calibration techniques and other auxiliary procedures to assess CEMS performance. The source owner or operator is responsible to calibrate, maintain, and operate the CEMS. The Administrator may require, under Section 114 of the Act, the source owner or operator to conduct CEMS performance evaluations at other times besides the initial test to evaluate CEMS performance. See 40 CFR Part 60, Section 60.13(c).

1.2.3 The definitions, performance specification, test procedures, calculations and data analysis procedures for determining calibration drifts (CD) and relative accuracy (RA), of Performance Specification 2 (PS 2), Sections 3, 8.0, and 12, respectively, apply to this specification.

2.0 Summary of Performance Specification.

The CD and RA tests are conducted to determine conformance of the CEMS to the specification.

3.0 Definitions.

Same as in Section 3.0 of PS 2.

4.0 Interferences. [Reserved]

5.0 Safety.

This performance specification may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This performance specification may not address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicable regulatory limitations prior to performing this performance specification. The CEMS users manual should be consulted for specific precautions to be taken with regard to the analytical procedures.

6.0 Equipment and Supplies.

Same as Section 6.0 of PS 2 with the following additions.

6.1 Data Recorder Scale.

6.1.1 This specification is the same as Section 6.1 of PS 2. The CEMS shall be capable of measuring emission levels under normal conditions and under periods of short duration peaks of high concentrations. This dual-range capability may be met using two separate analyzers (one for each range) or by using dual-range units which have the capability of measuring both levels with a single unit. In the latter case, when the reading goes above the full-scale measurement value of the lower range, the higher-range operation shall be started automatically. The CEMS recorder range must include zero and a high-level value. Under applications of consistent low emissions, a single-range analyzer is allowed provided normal and spike emissions can be quantified. In this case, set an appropriate high-level value to include all emissions.

6.1.2 For the low-range scale of dual-range units, the high-level value shall be between 1.5 times the pollutant concentration corresponding to the emission standard level and the span value. For the high-range scale, the high-level value shall be set at 2000 ppm, as a minimum, and the range shall include the level of the span value. There shall be no concentration gap between the low and high- range scales.

7.0 Reagents and Standards.

Same as Section 7.0 of PS 2.

8.0 Sample Collection, Preservation, Storage, and Transport.

8.1 Relative Accuracy Test Procedure.

Sampling Strategy for reference method (RM) Tests, Number of RM Tests, and Correlation of RM and CEMS Data are the same as PS 2, Sections 8.4.3, 8.4.4, and 8.4.5, respectively.

8.2 Reference Methods.

Unless otherwise specified in an applicable subpart of the regulation, Methods 10, 10A, 10B, or other approved alternative is the RM for this PS. When evaluating non-dispersive infrared CEMS using Method 10 as the RM, the alternative interference trap specified in Section 16.0 of Method 10 shall be used.

8.3 Response Time Test Procedure.

The response time test applies to all types of CEMS, but will generally have significance only for extractive systems.

8.3.1 Introduce zero gas into the analyzer.

When the system output has stabilized (no change greater than 1 percent of full scale for 30 sec), introduce an upscale calibration gas and wait for a stable value. Record the time (upscale response time) required to reach 95 percent of the final stable value. Next, reintroduce the zero gas and wait for a stable reading before recording the response time (downscale response time). Repeat the entire procedure three times and determine the mean upscale and downscale response times. The slower or longer of the two means is the system response time.

8.4 Interference Check.

The CEMS must be shown to be free from the effects of any interferences.

9.0 Quality Control. [Reserved]

10.0 Calibration and Standardization. [Reserved]

11.0 Analytical Procedure.

Sample collection and analysis are concurrent for this performance specification (see Section 8.0). Refer to the RM for specific analytical procedures.

12.0 Calculations and Data Analysis.

Same as Section 12.0 of PS 2.

13.0 Method Performance.

13.1 calibration Drift.

The CEMS calibration must not drift or deviate from the reference value of the calibration gas, gas cell, or optical filter by more than 5 percent of the established span value for 6 out of 7 test days.

13.2 Relative Accuracy.

The RA of the CEMS must be no greater than 10 percent when the average RM value is used to calculate RA, 5 percent when the applicable emission standard is used to calculate RA, or within 5 ppmv when the RA is calculated as the absolute average difference between the RM and CEMS plus the 2.5 percent confidence coefficient.

13.3 Response Time.

The CEMS response time shall not exceed 1.5 min to achieve 95 percent of the final stable value.

14.0 Pollution Prevention. [Reserved]

15.0 Waste Management. [Reserved]

16.0 Alternative Procedures.

16.1 Under conditions where the average CO emissions are less than 10 percent of the standard, and this is verified by Method 10, a cylinder gas audit may be performed in place of the RA test to determine compliance with these limits. In this case, the cylinder gas shall contain CO in 12 percent carbon dioxide as an interference check. If this option is exercised, Method 10 must be used to verify that emission levels are less than 10 percent of the standard.

17.0 References.

Same as Section 17 of PS 4.

18.0 Tables, Diagrams, flowcharts, and Validation Data.

Same as Section 18.0 of PS 2.

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